Section 109 of CGST Act 2017: Constitution of Appellate Tribunal and Benches thereof

Provisions under Section 109 of the Central Goods and Services Tax (CGST) Act, 2017 relating to “Constitution of Appellate Tribunal and Benches thereof”, are as under:

Section 109 of CGST Act 2017: Constitution of Appellate Tribunal and Benches thereof (CHAPTER XVIII – APPEALS AND REVISION)

(1) The Government shall, on the recommendations of the Council, by notification, constitute with effect from such date as may be specified therein, an Appellate Tribunal known as the Goods and Services Tax Appellate Tribunal for hearing appeals against the orders passed by the Appellate Authority or the Revisional Authority.

(2) The powers of the Appellate Tribunal shall be exercisable by the National Bench and Benches thereof (hereinafter in this Chapter referred to as “Regional Benches”), State Bench and Benches thereof (hereafter in this Chapter referred to as “Area Benches”).

(3) The National Bench of the Appellate Tribunal shall be situated at New Delhi which shall be presided over by the President and shall consist of one Technical Member (Centre) and one Technical Member (State).

(4) The Government shall, on the recommendations of the Council, by notification, constitute such number of Regional Benches as may be required and such Regional Benches shall consist of a Judicial Member, one Technical Member (Centre) and one Technical Member (State).

(5) The National Bench or Regional Benches of the Appellate Tribunal shall have jurisdiction to hear appeals against the orders passed by the Appellate Authority or the Revisional Authority in the cases where one of the issues involved relates to the place of supply.

(6) The Government shall, by notification, specify for each State or Union territory, a Bench of the Appellate Tribunal (hereafter in this Chapter, referred to as “State Bench”) for exercising the powers of the Appellate Tribunal within the concerned State or Union territory except for the State of Jammu and Kashmir:

Provided that for the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the State Bench of the Goods and Services Tax Appellate Tribunal constituted under this Act shall be the State Appellate Tribunal constituted under the Jammu and Kashmir Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017:

Provided further that the Government shall, on receipt of a request from any State Government, constitute such number of Area Benches in that State, as may be recommended by the Council:

Provided also that the Government may, on receipt of a request from any State, or on its own motion for a Union territory, notify the Appellate Tribunal in a State to act as the Appellate Tribunal for any other State or Union territory, as may be recommended by the Council, subject to such terms and conditions as may be prescribed.

(7) The State Bench or Area Benches shall have jurisdiction to hear appeals against the orders passed by the Appellate Authority or the Revisional Authority in the cases involving matters other than those referred to in sub-section (5).

(8) The President and the State President shall, by general or special order, distribute the business or transfer cases among Regional Benches or, as the case may be, Area Benches in a State.

(9) Each State Bench and Area Benches of the Appellate Tribunal shall consist of a Judicial Member, one Technical Member (Centre) and one Technical Member (State) and the State Government may designate the senior most Judicial Member in a State as the State President.

(10) In the absence of a Member in any Bench due to vacancy or otherwise, any appeal may, with the approval of the President or, as the case may be, the State President, be heard by a Bench of two Members:

Provided that any appeal where the tax or input tax credit involved or the difference in tax or input tax credit involved or the amount of fine, fee or penalty determined in any order appealed against, does not exceed five lakh rupees and which does not involve any question of law may, with the approval of the President and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed on the recommendations of the Council, be heard by a bench consisting of a single member.

(11) If the Members of the National Bench, Regional Benches, State Bench or Area Benches differ in opinion on any point or points, it shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority, if there is a majority, but if the Members are equally divided, they shall state the point or points on which they differ, and the case shall be referred by the President or as the case may be, State President for hearing on such point or points to one or more of the other Members of the National Bench, Regional Benches, State Bench or Area Benches and such point or points shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority of Members who have heard the case, including those who first heard it.

(12) The Government, in consultation with the President may, for the administrative convenience, transfer—

(a) any Judicial Member or a Member Technical (State) from one Bench to another Bench, whether National or Regional; or

(b) any Member Technical (Centre) from one Bench to another Bench, whether National, Regional, State or Area.

(13) The State Government, in consultation with the State President may, for the administrative convenience, transfer a Judicial Member or a Member Technical (State) from one Bench to another Bench within the State.

(14) No act or proceedings of the Appellate Tribunal shall be questioned or shall be invalid merely on the ground of the existence of any vacancy or defect in the constitution of the Appellate Tribunal.

Amendments History:

1. CBEC notifies 1st July 2017 as the Commencement date for Section 109 of the CGST Act 2017, vide Notification 9/2017 Central Tax dt. 19/06/2017.

2. Amendments made vide Section 2 of the CGST (Extension to Jammu and Kashmir) Act 2017 dt. 24/08/2017, w.e.f. 08/07/2017:

a) in sub-section (6), the text “except for the State of Jammu and Kashmir” inserted;

b) first proviso to sub-section (6) inserted.

3. Amendments made vide section 125 of the Finance Act 2020 (No. 12 of 2020): GOI Notification dt. 27/03/2020, effective from a date to be notified separately in the Official Gazette:

a) in sub-section (6), the text “except for the State of Jammu and Kashmir” omitted; and

b) the first proviso omitted.

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Note: The CGST Act, 2017 has been notified vide GOI Notification dt. 12/04/2017, which has subsequently been amended through CGST (Extension to J&K) Act 2017, Finance Act 2018, CGST Amendment Act 2018, Finance (No. 2) Act 2019, Finance Act 2020, Taxation and Other Laws (Relaxation of Certain Provisions) Ordinance 2020, Finance Act 2021, including various Notifications issued by the Govt./ CBIC from time to time, relating to the commencement dates of various Sections/ Provisions in the respective CGST/ Amendment Acts, wherever required. Information on this page is a Section-wise compilation of Amendments made by all such Notifications, with best possible efforts for accuracy. In any case, E&OE. For official/ updated information, please visit CBIC website.

CBIC Updates (GST)
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